With MAXQDA you can create frequency tables and charts for subcode frequencies. You can open this function in the ribbon menu via Codes > Subcode Statistics.
The following dialog box appears: on the left side, all existing top-level codes that have subcodes are listed; on the right side your selected codes appear. In the middle, arrow buttons allow you to transfer codes from one window to the other. You can also do this by double clicking on a code. Click on the column header of either list in order to alphabetize content.
For codes containing subcodes, this function can also be called up directly from the “Code System” window. Right-click on the code and select Subcode Statistics. This allows you to access the statistics functions for codes that are not at the top level of the code system.
The analysis can be restricted to currently activated documents and subcodes. To do so, check the appropriate boxes.
The option Aggregate subcodes is selected by default. If the option is selected, the chosen level subcodes of the subcodes will be included in the analysis. They will be aggregated with the top-level code, and only this code will be displayed in the results table. If the option is deselected, only the direct subcodes of the selected code will be included in the analysis.
Selecting units of analysis for statistical evaluations
At the bottom of the screen, you will find options for the unit of analysis. The following options are available:
Documents (count all subcodes) – This option corresponds, in principle, to an evaluation of multiple responses. In this case, the analysis is performed assuming that when several subcodes can be coded in a document, the subcodes are not mutually exclusive. MAXQDA analyzes the number of documents to which a subcode has been assigned. All subcodes that occur in a given document will be counted, on a per-document basis. This type of analysis would typically be employed to answer the question “What percentage of cases (= documents) mention the theme (= code) XY ?”.
Documents (count most frequent subcode only) – In this case, the analysis is performed under the assumption that subcodes are mutually exclusive, meaning that subcodes can be interpreted as categorical variables. On a per-document basis, only the subcode that occurs most frequently is taken into account. If two or more subcodes occur with the same frequency within a document, a new “not defined” category will appear.
Coded segments – This option analyzes the number of coded segments per subcode.
Once you click OK, MAXQDA begins the statistical calculation, after which the results will be displayed as frequency tables and diagrams.
The window shows the table view of the first selected variables:
The first column of the table lists the different subcodes of the table; the second column, the absolute frequency; the third column, the corresponding percentages. The fourth column shows the percentages based on valid values, meaning documents without analyzed codes are not taken into account. If there are no missing values, then the percentages will be identical in the third and fourth columns.
The meaning of the table values depends on which unit of analysis has been selected:
Unit of Analysis: Documents (count all subcodes) – The table will show the number of documents in which the respective subcode was assigned. For each document, all subcodes that occur in the document will be counted. At the end of the table, the number of documents is displayed in which none of the analysed subcodes occur.
Unit of Analysis: Documents (count most frequent subcode only) – The table will show the number of documents in which the respective subcode was assigned. Subcodes are mutually exclusive. For each document, only the most frequently occurring subcode will be counted. At the end of the table, the number of documents is displayed in which none of the analyzed subcodes occur.
Unit of Analysis: Coded Segments – The table will show how often a subcode was assigned, meaning how many coded segments exist for this code.
If you instead select the unit of analysis “Documents (count most frequent subcode only)” a new column “Percentage (valid)” is displayed. As you can see below 5 of the analyzed documents don’t have any of the subcodes in question assigned to them. The last column calculates the percentages based only on the 30 documents with any of the selected subcodes. The first line tell us, that in two documents the subcode “Current work-life balance” is the most frequently assigned subcode. For another two document the subcode “Siblings” is the most frequent subcode and in one document “Parents” is the most frequently assigned subcode.
|Subocde “A”||Number of documents in which Code “A” occurs.|
|Subcode “B”||Number of documents in which Code “B” occurs.|
|Subcode “C”||Number of documents in which Code “C” occurs.|
|DOCUMENTS with code(s)||Number of documents in which at AT LEAST ONE of the analyzed subcodes occurs.|
|DOCUMENTS without code(s)||Number of documents in which NONE of the analyzed subcodes occurs.|
|ANALYZED DOCUMENTS||Number of documents total.|