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Frequency Tables

To create a new frequency table, proceed as follows:

1. Select the menu function Descriptive Statistics > Frequencies.

2. In the window that appears, select the variables for which you would like to create frequency tables:

Display Frequencies in MAXQDA Analytics Pro

Variables can be selected in several ways:

  • Double-click on a variable.
  • Drag and drop the variable into the right window pane.
  • Select one or multiple variables with the mouse by holding the Ctrl/⌘ key then drag the selection into the right window pane with the mouse, or click the blue arrow in the middle of the window.

3. Switch to the “Codes” tab and select the codes for which you would like to create frequency tables. (This function is available only when MAXQDA Stats is launched from a MAXQDA project).

If you have selected at least one code, you can specify further options below:

Binarize all codes – All code frequencies greater than 1 are set to 1, i.e. the code frequency per document is not evaluated, but only whether a code occurs in a document or not.

Sum up frequencies of subcodes – For parent codes, the frequencies of all subcodes available in the Stats dialogue are added to the code frequency. If the option Binarize subcodes is also selected, the summation only takes into account whether the code was assigned to a document (the frequency of a subcode is set to “1”) or not (the frequency of a subcode is set to “0”). When combining both options, the sum of the subcodes indicates how many subcodes were coded for a document.

When you click OK, MAXQDA Stats creates a frequency table and displays it in a results view.

Please note: If you have selected option Exclude cases listwise, cases with valid values in all selected variables are analyzed only.

Opening frequency tables from the Data Editor

You can also open a frequency table for individual variables directly from the Data Editor. To do this, right-click on a column heading and select the entry Frequency Table.

Opening frequency tables from the Data Editor

Results table

Results table for frequency

The frequency table displays how many times the individual variables occur. For the variable “Job Security Scale”, the value “low” was assigned in 22 cases, and the value “high” in 20 cases. The lower section of the table shows system-defined missing values (blank cells) as well as defined missing values; in the example above, the value “-9” is assigned to 3 cases.

Hint: If a value is defined in the individual missing values as well as in a range of missing values, it will be calculated only as an individual missing value. For example, if “99” is defined as missing and also “50 to 100”, “99” will be included in its own row and excluded from the range “50 to 100.“

Overview of toolbar functions

In the upper section of the results window two toolbars are located, which contain the following important functions:

Table view / Chart view – switches between table and chart view.

Previous/Next – using the blue arrow or the selection list, switch between the results for the analyzed selected variables or codes.

Refresh – Calls up again the dialog for creation of frequency tables.

Insert into output viewer – inserts the currently displayed table or chart in the Output Viewer.

Send to QTT worksheet – inserts the current view into a new or an existing QTT worksheet.

Insert all into output viewer – inserts all created tables or charts in the Output Viewer.

Copy – copies the current table, highlighted area in the table, or chart, for example for insertion into Word.

Print – prints the currently displayed table or chart.

Export – exports the currently displayed table in Excel format, website (HTML) format or RTF format for Word and other word processing programs; exports the currently displayed chart in PNG, SVG or EMF (only Windows) format.

Show value labels – this option is selected by default and causes the defined value label of a variable to be displayed in the place of the value of the variable.

Descriptive statistics – this option is available only for integer and decimal type variables as well as for codes and displays a window with descriptive statistics for the displayed frequency tables.

Undo changes – step-by-step resetting of changes to a table (deletion of rows, merging and moving of rows).

Redo – step-by-step restoring of changes to a table.

Sort tables and customize columns

Tables can be sorted by clicking a column header, in ascending order with the first click and descending order with the second. Clicking again will restore the original order.

Tip: You can also move the rows of the results table. Click a row, then drag and drop with the mouse to the desired location. This function is also available for multiple highlighted rows. Lines containing totals or missing values cannot be moved.

Column widths can be adjusted with the mouse, and their position can be changed by clicking the column header then dragging them to the desired location with the mouse.

Delete rows

The results table is interactive and one or more rows can be removed, for example to restrict the evaluation to selected variables. Right-click a row and select Delete. You can also select multiple rows to delete by holding down the Ctrl/cmd key.

In this way, you can also remove the missing values from the display:

Delete rows from the results table using the context menu

The table will be automatically updated.

Tip: A column can be hidden from the table by right-clicking within the column header and selecting Hide column. When the frequency function is called up the next time, the column will be automatically displayed again.

Merge values

The interactive results table also allows you to merge multiple values:

  1. Highlight at least two rows by holding down the Ctrl/cmd key as you click on the desired rows with the mouse.
  2. Right-click the selection and select Merge values.
Merge multiple values using the context menu

The table will be automatically updated.

Save documents as document set

If MAXQDA Stats is launched with the data from a MAXQDA project, the frequency of individual variable values corresponds to the number of documents in which these variable values occurred. In this case, a compilation of documents is present behind each frequency count. This compilation of documents can be saved as a document set in MAXQDA: Right-click on a row and select Save as document set.

Store documents that are attached to a variable value as a document set in MAXQDA

Initially, MAXQDA stores such sets in the background. When you exit Stats, all document sets created during the analysis will be displayed, so you can select which document sets you wish to transfer to the MAXQDA project.

Select document sets upon exiting MAXQDA Stats
Tip: The number of saved document sets in MAXQDA Stats is always displayed in Stats status bar. Simply click on the information in the status bar to open a new window, in which you can view or delete the saved document sets.

Use results table to filter cases in the Data Editor

You can use the results in a frequency table to filter cases in the Data Editor. To do this, right-click on a row and select Use as Filter in Data Editor in the menu that appears:

Calling the filter function via right click

As a result, only the cases that have the value of the selected row are displayed in the Data Editor. For this purpose, MAXQDA creates a new variable "StatsFilter", sets the value 1 for all associated cases and switches on the filter in the Data Editor for this variable.

Tip: This function is particularly helpful for mixed methods analysis in order to perform in-depth analysis of cases with particularly high, low, or eye-catching values. If you call up analysis functions while the filter is applied to the Data Editor, only the currently displayed cases, i.e. only the filtered cases, will be taken into account.

To switch the currently set filter on and off, click on the Filter  icon in the toolbar above the Data Editor. To delete all filters, click on the  icon.

Calculate descriptive statistics for frequency tables

In all frequency tables for integer or decimal variables as well as for codes, the mean and standard deviation is displayed at the top of the results window. When you click the  Descriptive Statisticssymbol, the following window will appear, which contains additional measures for descriptive statistics.

Descriptive Statistics for a variable

When you click the Copy button, the table will be transferred to the clipboard for insertion into programs such as Word.

Transfer results table to Output Viewer

After the tables have been created and adapted according to your needs, they can be transferred to the Output Viewer from which they can later be exported together:

  • Click the Insert into output viewer icon to transfer the currently displayed results table to the Output Viewer.
  • Click the Insert all result tables into output viewer icon to transfer all frequency tables to the Output Viewer.

If at least one of the tables was created for an integer or decimal variable or a code, MAXQDA Stats will ask if you also wish to insert the descriptive statistics into the Output Viewer. If you agree, a table containing the descriptive statistics will be displayed below the results table.

Tip: When the table is transferred, the adjusted column widths will be maintained.
Frequency table in the Output Viewer following transfer

Transfer results to Questions – Themes – Theories

In the Questions – Themes – Theories window, you can collect and comment on all the important results of your project. Click the Send to QTT Worksheet icon in the upper right corner to save the current view in a new or existing worksheet.

Once you close MAXQDA Stats, you can access all your QTT worksheets via Analysis > Questions – Themes – Theories.

Export and print results table

Several options for exporting and printing the currently displayed results table are available using the following symbols:

Copy – copies the entire table or selection to the clipboard, for example in order to paste it directly into Word.

Print – starts the print process and displays a print preview, in which the settings such as margins, orientation, headers and footers can be applied.

Export – exports the table in Excel format, website (HTML) format or RTF format for Word and other word processing programs.

Display frequencies as charts

Frequency tables can be displayed as column, bar, or pie charts. You can switch between chart and table views using the  and  icons.

Frequency chart

You can customize the chart design and display by using the icons in the toolbar above the chart, as well as double-clicking and right-clicking on the elements of the chart. The size of the chart automatically adjusts to the window size. Enlarge the window to get a larger chart.

Hint: At maximum, the first 20 entries of the frequency table will be displayed in the chart.

Frequency charts can be transferred to the Output Viewer for storage and later export, or they can be transferred to a QTT worksheet. To do this, click on the corresponding icons in the top right corner of the toolbar:

Insert into Output Viewer and Send to QTT Worksheet

Hint: Charts will be inserted into the Output Viewer in the size that they are displayed, to a maximum width of 650 pixels.

To export or print a chart directly, you can use the usual icons in the top right of the window:

Copy, Print and Export.

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